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Replacement heart valves 

Replacement heart valves
Replacement heart valves

John B. Chambers

and Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde

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date: 24 October 2021

Echocardiography is the gold-standard investigation for assessing replacement valve function and detecting pathology. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is sufficient for assessing patients routinely with no evidence of pathology. However, in patients with suspected dysfunction, the addition of transoesophageal echocardiography is usually necessary. Stress echocardiography may also be necessary in patients with exertional symptoms unexplained by the resting TTE.

There are comprehensive International Guidelines for the echocardiographic assessment of prosthetic valves1 and the management of clinical problems.2,3 Stented valves placed using transcatheter techniques are rapidly becoming established.4 The aim of this chapter is to summarize the normal appearance of replacement valves by position and also to describe the diagnosis of pathology.

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