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Non-invasive haemodynamic assessment 

Non-invasive haemodynamic assessment
Non-invasive haemodynamic assessment

Andrea Kallmeyer

, José Luis Zamorano

, G Locorotondo

, Madalina Garbi

, José Juan Gómez de Diego

, and Miguel Ángel García Fernández

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date: 09 December 2021

The diagnostic power of two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography resides not only in its capability of providing anatomical information and of studying myocardial contractile function, but also in the possibility of performing a non-invasive haemodynamic assessment. Such non-invasive haemodynamic assessment is the subject of this chapter.

2D echocardiography, colour flow imaging, and Doppler modality make this haemodynamic assessment possible, by studying the following parameters:

Blood flow velocities.

Transvalvular pressure gradients.

Valvular areas.

Stroke volume, regurgitant volume, and regurgitant fraction.

Cardiac function.

The application of these concepts in clinical practice will be explained through this chapter. They can be summarized in the following points:

The study of valvular insufficiencies.

The study of the valvular stenosis.

The study of intracardiac shunts.

The study of myocardial systolic and diastolic function.

The estimation of intracardiac pressures.

Finally, non-invasive haemodynamic study represents an alternative to invasive procedures in some clinical circumstances and it is very important in the diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. Therefore, it is necessary for the cardiologist to understand how this echocardiographic study is performed, as well as its advantages and limitations.

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