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Vaccination: Interrupting Spatial Disease Transmission 

Vaccination: Interrupting Spatial Disease Transmission
Chapter:
Vaccination: Interrupting Spatial Disease Transmission
Author(s):

Andrew Cliff

and Matthew Smallman-Raynor

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199596614.003.0004
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date: 20 February 2020

This chapter discusses the range of diseases that can be prevented by routine immunisation as the practice expanded in the post-war decades. In addition to vaccines against the common infectious killers of childhood, vaccines to prevent diseases in later life, including hepatitis B (liver cancer) and human papilloma virus (cervical cancer) vaccines, have been added to the routine infant immunisation schedules of a number of countries. Vaccines for malaria are under development, as are improved vaccines against tuberculosis, while vaccination against HIV may one day be possible. The development of new vaccines in the early twenty-first century is an expensive process. There may be as many as 20 vaccines in routine use globally by 2030, and financial donors are likely to be required to meet the financial burden. To weigh against the high economic costs of vaccine development and delivery, immunisation programmes have resulted in some remarkable public health achievements. In addition to averting many tens of millions of cases of morbidity and premature mortality from common infections worldwide, these achievements have included the global eradication of smallpox, the substantial global retreat of poliomyelitis and, in some countries, the sustained interruption of indigenous measles virus transmission. The US measles elimination drive of the 1990s has demonstrated that indigenous measles transmission can be interrupted in a large and diverse country with a routine two-dose vaccination strategy.

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