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Valvular heart disease 

Valvular heart disease
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date: 23 October 2019

Within this chapter we have tried to include those papers which have, by themselves, provoked a shift in our understanding of PAH (and one relating to CTEPH) and have moved the field forward. Many of the developments in our understanding have come from work in cardiovascular biology and risen to prominence in piecemeal fashion. As is always the case with research, the uncertainty of experimentation means that many studies in PAH do not stand alone. They are reliant on previous trials or lacked power to show a conclusive result. This has been a continuing problem in PAH trials as ethical considerations restrict the use of mortality end points and the number of cases remain relatively small. However, we have been able to select the most worthy papers in pulmonary hypertension; they demonstrate the ingenuity and originality of the researchers, feature coherent scientific arguments firmly supported by appropriate data, and still stand up as examples of how to conduct research in a rare, but important disease.

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