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The nervous system 

The nervous system
The nervous system

James Thomas

and Tanya Monaghan


11 October, 2018: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

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date: 27 October 2021


Presenting symptoms

The rest of the history


The outline examination

General inspection and mental state

Cognitive function

Speech and language

Cranial nerve examination

Cranial nerves II, III, IV, and VI

Cranial nerve I: olfactory

Cranial nerve V: trigeminal

Cranial nerve VII: facial

Cranial nerve VIII: vestibulocochlear

Cranial nerves IX and X

Cranial nerve XI: accessory

Cranial nerve XII: hypoglossal

Motor: applied anatomy

Motor: inspection and tone

Motor: upper limb power

Motor: lower limb power

Tendon reflexes

Other reflexes

Primitive reflexes

Sensory: applied anatomy

Sensory examination


Some peripheral nerves


The unconscious patient

Important presenting patterns

The elderly patient

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