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The abdomen 

The abdomen
The abdomen

James Thomas

, Tanya Monaghan

, and Prarthana Thiagarajan



Jaundice and pruritus


Box 7.12 Causes of jaundice

The term ‘primary biliary cirrhosis’ has been replaced by the term ‘primary biliary cholangitis’ in international liver guidelines as of 2015.

Important presentations

Perianal disease


Lord’s classification also includes Grade 4: prolapse, non-reducible.

Chapter updated by Prarthana Thiagarajan

Updated on 11 October 2018. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 29 June 2022



Swallowing symptoms

Nausea and vomiting

Abdominal pain

Bowel habit

Generalized abdominal swelling

Jaundice and pruritus

Appetite and weight

Lower urinary tract symptoms

The rest of the history


Outline examination

Inspection: hands

Inspection: upper limbs

Inspection: face

Inspection: neck and chest

Inspection: abdomen


Abdominal scars 1: open surgery

Abdominal scars 2: laparoscopic

Palpation: general

Palpation: aorta

Palpation: liver and gallbladder

Palpation: spleen

Palpation: kidneys and bladder

Palpation: herniae



‘Per rectum’ examination

Important presentations

The elderly patient

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