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The cardiovascular system 

The cardiovascular system
Chapter:
The cardiovascular system
Author(s):

James Thomas

and Tanya Monaghan

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199593972.003.0005

11 October, 2018: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

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date: 27 October 2021

Introduction

History

Chest pain

Breathlessness and oedema

Fatigue

Palpitations

Syncope

Claudication

Rest pain

The rest of the history

Examination

Outline cardiovascular examination

General inspection and hands

Peripheral pulses

The face and neck

The precordium: inspection and palpation

The precordium: auscultation

Murmurs

Extra sounds

Examining beyond the chest

Important presentations

The elderly patient

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