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Endocrinology 

Endocrinology
Chapter:
Endocrinology
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199593460.003.0093
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date: 08 December 2019

Diabetes care 584

Insulin administration 586

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion 589

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic lifelong endocrine condition. Environmental factors trigger an autoimmune response to destroy insulin producing cells in the pancreas, resulting in Type 1 diabetes (Insulin dependent). Subsequently patients lose their ability to control blood glucose (BG) levels and are reliant on insulin therapy for survival. Long term poor BG control leads to multiple complications, with life expectancy on average reduced by 15yrs. Causes are mainly environmental (viral). 90% of people have no relative with diabetes. Genetic elements can be traced to Human leucocyte antigen markers predisposing individuals. DM typically affects <25-yr-olds, with a peak incidence in age of 10–14-yr-olds; although there is a rising incidence in under 5-yr-olds....

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