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John A. Sayer

, and Roslyn J. Simms



single change to number in Essentials

Updated on 24 May 2018. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 01 December 2020

Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease and the leading genetic cause of end-stage renal failure in children and young adults. Whilst enlarged dysplastic cystic kidneys are associated with infantile NPHP, more typically renal ultrasound reveals normal kidney size and corticomedullary cysts in a child with polyuria and secondary enuresis. Extrarenal manifestations occur in 10–15% including retinal degeneration, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and liver fibrosis, requiring referral to other specialists. Mutations in 18 genes have been identified to cause NPHP, but a genetic diagnosis still cannot be found in many patients. NPHP is classified as a ciliopathy because of the localization of the protein products of the associated genes. Currently there is no specific therapy for NPHP.

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