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Bone, joint, and connective tissue disorders 

Bone, joint, and connective tissue disorders
Bone, joint, and connective tissue disorders

Keith G. Allman

, Iain H. Wilson

, and Aidan O’Donnell

Page of

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date: 26 January 2021

Colin Berry

Rheumatoid arthritis 192

Ankylosing spondylitis 195

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 196

Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) 198

Scoliosis 201

Achondroplasia 202

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder mainly involving joints but with extra-articular effects. Overall prevalence in the UK is 1–2% but it is 3 times higher in females. Peak onset is between 30 and 55yr. It also affects children as Still's disease. Patients are often frail, in chronic pain, and taking medications with adverse effects. Airway problems are common. There is a higher than average mortality due to both the disease itself and the presence of concurrent disorders....

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