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Rheumatic complications of HIV infection 

Rheumatic complications of HIV infection
Rheumatic complications of HIV infection

Ulrich A. Walker

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date: 04 December 2020

1. Autoimmune phenomena in terms of laboratory abnormalities without an associated rheumatic condition are highly prevalent in HIV-infected persons.

2. Bacterial, fungal or opportunistic pathogens may be recovered from virtually every structure of the musculoskeletal system.

3. The wide spectrum of articular complaints includes non-specific arthralgia, HIV-associated arthritis, Reiter's syndrome and psoriatic arthritis.

4. Myopathic problems consist of rhabdomyolysis, polymyositis and zidovudine myopathy.

5. Vasculitis may present as cryoglobulinaemia, large vessel vasculitis, cerebral angiitis and polyarteritis nodosa, among other entities.

6. SLE has many features of HIV infection and may also induce false positive HIV serology.

7. Bones are subject to a high prevalence of osteonecrosis and osteoporosis, the latter of which is of multi-factorial origin and induces fractures. The contribution of HIV infection itself and ART to bone mineral loss is currently the focus of intense research.

8. Some rheumatic conditions require the use of immunosuppressive drugs.

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