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Oliguria and anuria 

Oliguria and anuria
Chapter:
Oliguria and anuria
Author(s):

Aron Chakera

, William G. Herrington

, and Christopher A. O’Callaghan

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199568741.003.0056
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date: 31 October 2020

Oliguria can be caused by any factor that affects renal function, or the free passage of urine down the urinary tract. Complete anuria most commonly occurs in men as a consequence of bladder outlet obstruction from an enlarged prostate. It can also arise in patients who have a single functioning kidney which then becomes obstructed or loses its vascular supply. Oliguria occurs commonly in hospitalized patients, is usually secondary to impaired renal perfusion, and is often predictable. The elderly and more unwell patients, for example, those in critical care settings, are most at risk. The presence of oliguria tends to reflect the severity of the underlying disease processes. The commonest cause of complete anuria is bladder outflow obstruction from an enlarged prostate. This may be precipitated by prostatitis or constipation in a patient with benign prostatic hypertrophy. In catheterized patients, a blocked catheter must be excluded.

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