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Invasive Imaging and Haemodynamics 

Invasive Imaging and Haemodynamics
Invasive Imaging and Haemodynamics

Carlo Di Mario

, Guy R. Heyndrickx

, Francesco Prati

, and Nico H.J. Pijls

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date: 24 September 2021

Direct catheter-based measurements of saturation and pressure in the various cardiac cavities allows full characterization of patient haemodynamics, including presence of intracardiac shunts, valve gradients and areas, and pulmonary and vascular resistances. The most important invasive haemodynamic assessment in today’s practice, however, is now performed in the coronary arteries using microsensor-tipped guidewires able to measure post-stenotic pressure. When measured after maximal vasodilation, fractional flow reserve offers reliable individual characterization of coronary lesions. Results from large randomized long-term studies have shown that this technique can be safely used to defer interventions in single vessel disease and to target only functionally significant lesions in multivessel disease....

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