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Cardiac Ultrasound 

Cardiac Ultrasound
Cardiac Ultrasound

Frank A. Flachskampf

, Jens-Uwe Voigt

, and Werner G. Daniel

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date: 16 September 2021

Cardiac ultrasound, or echocardiography, is by far the most extensively used imaging modality for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Two- and three-dimensional real-time echocardiography provide comprehensive cardiac morphology at very high spatial (with good images, <1mm) and temporal (>100 frames/s) resolution. Moreover, Doppler and speckle tracking techniques are able to measure the local velocity of blood flow and of the myocardium throughout the heart, thus allowing blood flow analysis in valvular lesions (stenosis or regurgitation) and shunt lesions, as well as analysis of motion and deformation of the myocardium, enabling detection of functional abnormalities, e.g. in the presence of ischaemia or cardiomyopathy. Echocardiography is non-invasive and devoid of ionizing radiation; the hardware is mobile and ideal for bedside use. For special purposes, ultrasound imaging can also be performed semi-invasively via the oesophagus or invasively via the vessels. Further refinements include its application during stress, in particular to elicit an ischaemic myocardial response, and with right and left heart contrast. Because of its ubiquitous availability, lack of untoward biologic effects, relatively low cost, and unparalleled diagnostic power, it is the first-line imaging approach in cardiology and indicated in practically all cardiovascular diseases....

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