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Valvular Heart Disease 

Valvular Heart Disease
Valvular Heart Disease

Alec Vahanian

, Bernard Iung

, Luc Piérard

, Robert Dion

, and John Pepper

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date: 24 September 2021

Valvular heart disease (VHD), although not as common as coronary disease, heart failure, or hypertension, is an important, and challenging, clinical entity. It is of interest for the following reasons: substantial advances have been made in the understanding of its pathophysiology; important changes in patient characteristics and aetiologies have occurred over recent years; diagnosis is now largely dominated by non-invasive imaging, especially echocardiography which has become the standard to evaluate valve structure and function; and, finally, treatment has not only developed through the continuing progress in prosthetic valve technology, but also has been re-orientated by the development of conservative surgical techniques and the development of interventional cardiology....

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