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Congenital Heart Disease in Children and Adults 

Congenital Heart Disease in Children and Adults
Congenital Heart Disease in Children and Adults

John E. Deanfield

, Robert Yates

, Folkert J. Meijboom

, and Barbara J.M. Mulder

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date: 16 September 2021

This chapter describes the enormous progress that has been made in the diagnosis, investigation, and management of patients with congenital cardiac malformations, who are seen with increasing frequency in adult cardiac practice. Management of these often challenging patients has become an important ‘subspecialty’ of adult cardiology, but appropriate systems for care delivery have not yet been developed in most countries. Nomenclature, aetiology, and incidence are considered as well as common presenting features. Investigative strategies are then reviewed as these have evolved rapidly in the last two decades, with a shift from invasive to non-invasive protocols involving echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Modern treatment approaches have also developed considerably and now involve both surgery and interventional catheterization, often as part of a ‘hybrid’ lifetime strategy for management of the congenital malformation....

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