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Respiratory symptoms 

Respiratory symptoms
Respiratory symptoms

Anna Spathis

, Helen E. Davies

, Sara Booth

, and Max Watson

Page of

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date: 04 August 2021

Introduction 60

Breathlessness trajectories 61

Mechanisms of breathlessness 62

Assessment of breathlessness 64

Principles of management of breathlessness 66

Non-pharmacological interventions 68

Oxygen therapy 76

Pharmacological management 78

Cough 82

Further reading 84

Breathlessness, the uncomfortable awareness of the need to breathe, is the most common symptom that troubles dying patients with end-stage respiratory disease. Prevalence is said to reach 90% in patients with advanced lung cancer, and at least 70% in those with COPD and ILD. Clinical management achieves imperfect control and present palliative techniques are certainly less effective than those used in the management of somatic cancer pain....

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