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Pulmonary stenosis 

Pulmonary stenosis
Pulmonary stenosis

Jim Newton

, Nikant Sabharwal

, Saul Myerson

, Steven Westaby

, and Bernard Prendergast

Page of

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date: 26 June 2022

Introduction 236

Epidemiology 236

Aetiology 236

Symptoms 238

Clinical signs 238

Natural history 238

Initial investigations 240

Differential diagnosis 240

Echocardiographic assessment 242

Grading severity 244

Invasive assessment 244

Medical therapy 245

Surveillance 245

Surgical therapy 246

PS is a relatively rare condition and almost always congenital in origin. Associations with sub- or supra-valvar stenosis are common, and more complex congenital lesions such as Fallot's tetralogy should be considered (...

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