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Mitral regurgitation 

Mitral regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation

Jim Newton

, Nikant Sabharwal

, Saul Myerson

, Steven Westaby

, and Bernard Prendergast

Page of

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date: 05 July 2022

Introduction 176

Epidemiology 176

Aetiology 176

Symptoms 186

Clinical signs 188

Complications 188

Initial investigations 190

Differential diagnosis 190

Echocardiographic assessment 191

Carpentier classification 192

Grading severity 200

Surveillance 202

Medical therapy 202

Indications for surgery 204

Management algorithm for severe mitral regurgitation 206

MR is common and may result from abnormal function of any part of the mitral valve complex—the valve leaflets, annulus, chordae tendinae, and papillary muscles....

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