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Assessment of valvular heart disease 

Assessment of valvular heart disease
Assessment of valvular heart disease

Jim Newton

, Nikant Sabharwal

, Saul Myerson

, Steven Westaby

, and Bernard Prendergast

Page of

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date: 19 October 2021

Introduction 42

Clinical evaluation 42

Clinical examination 46

Transthoracic echocardiography 48

Transthoracic echocardiography: valve anatomy 50

Transoesophageal echocardiography 72

Stress testing 76

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance 80

Cardiac catheterization 82

Additional tests 84

The assessment of a patient with known or suspected valvular heart disease requires careful integration of information and data derived from: ...

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