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Non-invasive assessment of vascular calcification and arterial stiffness 

Non-invasive assessment of vascular calcification and arterial stiffness
Chapter:
Non-invasive assessment of vascular calcification and arterial stiffness
Author(s):

Paolo Raggi

and Gerard M. London

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199559176.003.013
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date: 10 August 2020

Increasing awareness of the negative prognostic impact of VC in CKD patients has generated great interest in the natural history and pathogenesis of this condition. The identification of factors associated with VC, as well as its progression sparked a wave of research into methods to assess VC and to inhibit its progression. Although quantitatively accurate, CT technologies are expensive, deliver a substantial dose of radiation and cannot be utilized in an ambulatory setting. Hence, Goodman et al. proposed a simplified approach to identify and semi-quantitatively assess the extent of VC in CKD patients. This approach includes a combination of echocardiography to detect valvular calcification, plain X-rays for peripheral and abdominal aorta calcification, as well as measurement of arterial pulse pressure as an indirect index of arterial stiffness. The long-term impact of this approach will need to be further elucidated, although preliminary evidence indicates that it may improve the risk stratification of CKD patients.

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