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Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) in kidney, bone, and vessels 

Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) in kidney, bone, and vessels
Chapter:
Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) in kidney, bone, and vessels
Author(s):

Ogo I. Egbuna

and Edward M. Brown

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199559176.003.004
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date: 10 August 2020

The CaSR is expressed not only in the parathyroid gland, kidney, and bone, where it is primarily involved in calcium homeostasis, but also in a number of tissues including the cardiovascular system not known to participate in calcium homeostasis. In these ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’ tissues, the CaSR regulates a number of newly identified cellular processes ranging from modulation of water channels in the kidney, to vascular smooth muscle relaxation and calcification, endothelial proliferation, and apoptosis in several cell types including cardiomyocytes. The relative sensitivities of these tissues to CaSR agonism or antagonism may, in part, be related to tissue receptor density, expression in physiologically protected sites, and cell-specific signaling pathways that explain, at least in part, why any dose of a CaSR agonist or antagonist may have effects of varying magnitude in the growing number of potential target tissues. These findings have refined the definition of ‘on’ and ‘off’ target effects of agonists and antagonists of the CaSR, and provide the basis for exciting hypotheses that are already in the various stages of clinical translation from the bench to the bedside.

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