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Heart failure 

Heart failure
Chapter:
Heart failure
Author(s):

Juan Carlos Kaski

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199557462.003.0025
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date: 30 March 2020

Introduction 4

Chronic heart failure with reduced LVEF (systolic heart failure) 6

Pharmacological management of chronic heart failure 8

Non-pharmacological management of chronic heart failure 18

Chronic heart failure with preserved LVEF (diastolic heart failure) 20

Acute heart failure 22

Clinical trials 26

Heart failure (HF) is a complex condition that results from cardiac functional and/or structural abnormalities that affect the ability of the heart to pump blood, and is often defined as the inability of the heart to adequately perfuse the organs of the body. Symptoms of HF vary depending on several factors but the most common manifestations of HF are dyspnoea and fatigue. Of importance, HF is not necessarily associated with a reduced ejection fraction (EF) (systolic HF), as up to 50% of cases occur in the presence of a preserved systolic function (diastolic dysfunction)....

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