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Anthony B. Ward

, Michael P. Barnes

, Sandra C. Stark

, and Sarah Ryan

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date: 29 July 2021

Introduction 106

Normal bladder function 108

Pathophysiology 110

Bladder detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia 112

Management of urinary problems 114

Catheters 116

Surgery 118

Neural control of the bladder and bowel extends from the frontal lobes to the sacral cord. Incontinence results from failure of control and is a major disabling problem. Bladder dysfunction is extremely common in many neurological diseases and following trauma. It is one of the most distressing impairments, which can give rise to considerable disability. Treatment may be complex, but it can often be greatly assisted by fairly simple means. Two major goals exist in clinical settings:...

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