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Anthony B. Ward

, Michael P. Barnes

, Sandra C. Stark

, and Sarah Ryan

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date: 01 August 2021

Definition 86

Upper motor neuron syndrome 88

Goals of treatment and outcome measures 90

The Tardieu Scale 92

Treatment strategies—alleviation of exacerbating factors and positioning 94

Treatment strategies—physiotherapy 96

Treatment strategies—oral medication 98

Focal treatment—phenol and botulinum toxin 100

Intrathecal techniques 102

Surgical and orthopaedic procedures ...

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