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Multiple sclerosis 

Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis

Anthony B. Ward

, Michael P. Barnes

, Sandra C. Stark

, and Sarah Ryan

Page of

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date: 07 August 2020

Background 248

Epidemiology 250

Natural history and prediction of prognosis 252

Diagnosis 254

Precipitating and aggravating factors 256

Rating scales 258

Disease-modifying treatment 262

Other disease-modifying treatments 264

Symptom management 266

Service delivery 274

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of severe physical disability in young adults. The progressive and changing nature of the condition combined with the complexity of the resulting disability makes MS one of the most serious challenges to the neurological rehabilitation team. These sections concentrate on the management of disability. Some background details are relevant and are described in the next few sections—epidemiology, natural history, and diagnosis....

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