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Peripheral arteries 

Peripheral arteries
Chapter:
Peripheral arteries
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199549573.003.14
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date: 17 October 2019

Introduction 384

Scanning and reporting: general aspects 386

Head and neck vessels 388

Carotid and aortic vessel wall imaging 390

Renal arteries 392

Iliac and leg arteries 394

Future perspective 396

Digital subtraction (x-ray) angiography (DSA) has been the gold standard for the diagnosis of carotid disease for many years. There are risks associated with the technique however (e.g. cerebral ischaemia/stroke, the invasive nature of the technique) and limitations due to variation in projection of the 2-dimensional images and interobserver variability. These led to the development of non-invasive imaging, particularly magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), which has become a common method of investigation. It offers both 2D and 3D imaging techniques for an accurate assessment of carotid, vertebral, and subclavian artery disease, with and without the use of gadolinium contrast. These vessels can be examined in a single scanning protocol with high image quality....

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