Show Summary Details
Page of

Global burden and natural history of COPD 

Global burden and natural history of COPD
Chapter:
Global burden and natural history of COPD
Author(s):

Trevor T. Hansel

and Onn Min Kon

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199549146.003.0001
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 23 September 2020

The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD, 2007) defines COPD as a non-reversible, progressive, obstructive lung disease generally caused by the inhalation of noxious gases and particles. COPD is recognized as being both preventable and treatable.

The diagnosis of COPD is frequently made at a late stage, as many patients ignore early symptoms of cough and exertional dyspnea.

The severity of COPD is commonly assessed by spirometry, in terms of the post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1).

COPD is generally caused by tobacco smoking, but it is also caused by inhalation of smoke from burning biomass fuel in developing countries.

Tobacco smoking is rising globally because of increased smoking in many low-income countries.

In 2001 COPD was the fifth leading cause of death in high-income countries and the sixth leading cause of death in nations of low and middle income.

A series of genes have been associated with COPD and emphysema, but many of these associations have not been confirmed.

The annual rate of decline in FEV1 is the classical measure of the natural history of COPD.

Extrapulmonary systemic features of COPD include muscle weakness and wasting, cachexia, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, endocrine defects, anaemia, depression, and malignancies.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.