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Pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy 

Pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy
Chapter:
Pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy
Author(s):

Rebecca Leigh

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199544967.003.0007
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date: 21 September 2019

Pre-proliferative retinopathy precedes proliferative retinopathy (new vessel growth) and is therefore an indication that the eye will soon be affected byadvanced stages of retinopathy

Pre-proliferative retinopathy indicates chronic retinal ischaemia due to blocked capillaries and the clinical signs include

Multiple cotton wool spots

Venous beading and/or looping

Multiple deep round and blot haemorrhages

Intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities.

New vessels arise on the optic disc (NVD) or on the retinal surface (NVE) due to retinal ischaemia and growth factors (VEGF and others). The new vessels help re-vascularize the hypoxic (oxygen-starved) tissue.

New vessels can easily rupture, leading to haemorrhage and severe visual loss.

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