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Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system 

Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system
Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system

Steven M. Shaw

, John E. Macdonald

, and Simon G. Williams

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date: 27 July 2021

Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is a cornerstone of treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).

The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CHF improves quality of life and prognosis across all stages of the disorder.

The angiotensin receptor blockers are effective substitutes for ACE inhibitors.

The combination of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers is effective in reducing mortality and morbidity in patients with CHF.

Spironolactone an aldosterone antagonist is effective in patients with more advanced heart failure; evidence in less severely symptomatic heart failure is awaited.

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