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Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression 

Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression
Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression

Amanda W. Calkins

, Andrew H. Rogers

, Allison A. Campbell

, and Naomi M. Simon

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date: 24 January 2022

Anxiety disorders and depression co-occur quite frequently, with as many as 60% of individuals meeting criteria for both an anxiety disorder and depression during a 12-month period. Individuals with comorbid anxiety and mood disorders have generally shown greater functional impairment, reduced quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes compared with individuals with only one disorder. This chapter on comorbid anxiety and depression discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, mechanisms, and impact of comorbid anxiety and depression, as well as methods for treating these commonly co-occurring conditions. It also highlights some of these issues for anxiety disorders comorbid with bipolar disorder. Novel treatments focused on common disorder mechanisms and future directions for improved classification of these comorbid conditions are also discussed.

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