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Clinical Aspects of Trauma-related Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 

Clinical Aspects of Trauma-related Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Chapter:
Clinical Aspects of Trauma-related Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Author(s):

Andrew A. Cooper

, Norah C. Feeny

, and Barbara O. Rothbaum

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199395125.003.0010
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date: 03 April 2020

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), now in the Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders category of DSM-5, includes four clusters of symptoms: intrusive symptoms, avoidance behaviors, negative trauma-related alterations in cognitions and mood, and trauma-related alterations in reactivity and arousal. This chapter briefly reviews psychological theories of PTSD, starting with Mowrer’s two-factor conditioning theory, including cognitive and schema theories and emotional processing theory, and concluding with recent evidence for fear extinction and inhibitory learning. It reviews cognitive behavioral therapies; exposure therapy, specifically prolonged exposure (PE), including psychoeducation, breathing relaxation training, imaginal exposure, in vivo exposure, and emotional processing of traumatic material; cognitive therapy, specifically cognitive processing therapy (CPT); and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), using rapid saccadic eye movements or bilateral stimulation during retelling of a traumatic memory. It concludes with a discussion of novel treatment adaptations and future directions in the field of PTSD treatment research.

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