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Chapter 72 

Chapter 72
Chapter 72

Freddie R. Swain

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date: 23 May 2022

In 1869, Gruber described four types of cervical ribs: (1) cervical ribs extending just beyond the transverse process, (2) cervical ribs extending beyond the transverse process with a free tip almost touching the first rib, (3) cervical ribs extending beyond the transverse process with fibrous bands or cartilage attaching to the first rib, and (4) cervical ribs completely fused to the first rib. Patients with Gruber class 2, 3, and 4 cervical ribs tend to make up the majority of patients who become symptomatic.

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