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Neurological Complications of HIV in The Central Nervous System 

Neurological Complications of HIV in The Central Nervous System
Chapter:
Neurological Complications of HIV in The Central Nervous System
Author(s):

Christopher Woldstad

, Michael Boska

, and Howard E. Gendelman

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199392742.003.0026
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date: 23 October 2019

This chapter serves to highlight both the research advances made in understanding the effects of HIV on the nervous system and what lies ahead. Particular focus is given to both the effects HIV can play on the nervous system at the molecular and cellular levels and the comorbid conditions that affect neural function. Attention is also given to specific biomarkers to be used for increasing the effectiveness and availability of therapies. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is comparable to that of several other neurodegenerative disorders, and their mechanistic similarities are also discussed in detail. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy the life expectancy of persons with HIV has increased, with a concomitant decrease in the incidence of severe dementia. There has been a remarkable improvement in cognitive function with almost a complete reversal of associated symptoms of disease. Past and present disease manifestations and the implications for treatment are outlined in the chapter.

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