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Peripheral and Autonomic Nervous Systems 

Peripheral and Autonomic Nervous Systems
Chapter:
Peripheral and Autonomic Nervous Systems
Author(s):

Shruti Deshpande

, Muhammad B. Rafique

, and Naveen Vanga

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199381623.003.0021
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date: 24 August 2019

This chapter reviews the role and functioning of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, with an emphasis on cellular physiology. The practice of regional anesthesia as well as commonly utilized anesthetic drugs directly impact the peripheral nervous system. The use of local anesthetics allows blockade of depolarization at the molecular level; as such molecular processes involved in neurological function and transmission are discussed. Additionally, the autonomic nervous system is impacted by a multiplicity of anesthetic drugs. The various types of receptors (i.e. - muscarinic, nicotinic and adrenergic) and neurotransmitters (i.e. - acetylcholine and norepinephrine) are discussed with normal processes outlined along with related application to the administration of anesthesia. The physiology of skeletal muscle contraction is reviewed along with molecular energetics required to achieve such function.

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