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General Anesthesia 

General Anesthesia
Chapter:
General Anesthesia
Author(s):

Matthew D. James

, Aimee Gretchen Kakascik

, Young Su

, Shilpa Dabhade

, and George W. Williams

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199381623.003.0018
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date: 22 October 2019

General anesthesia has many phases that must be understood and prepared for by the anesthesiologist. This chapter reviews the methods to assess and manage a patient during general anesthesia. Tracheostomy, cricothyroidotomy, and transtracheal jet ventilation are techniques sometimes employed in an emergency to provide oxygenation and ventilation to the patient that cannot be intubated or ventilated by usual means. A variety of airway catheters, bougies, or jet stylets may be used to aid in intubation or to facilitate endotracheal tube exchange. There are many types of endotracheal tube including a variety of tube material, tube tip design, cuff design, and other specific tube types. Regarding intravenous fluids the anesthesiologist must consider water, electrolyte, and glucose requirements and the benefits and risks of crystalloid versus colloid fluid. Anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality can be difficult to assess; common complications include ulnar neuropathy, awareness and recall, corneal abrasion, and dental injury.

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