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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Chapter:
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Author(s):

Sherry Hsiang-Yi Chou

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199375349.003.0006
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date: 03 April 2020

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects over 30,000 Americans per year, leaves over half of its survivors in severe disability, and has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. SAH syndrome presents with a complex disease course and symptoms involving both the central nervous system (CNS) as well as extra-CNS systems. SAH may lead to early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm, and delayed cerebral ischemia, which increases SAH morbidity and mortality. SAH-related extra-CNS organ injuries include neurogenic stunned myocardium, neurogenic pulmonary edema, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, cerebral salt wasting syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, fever, and venous thromboembolism, all of which require careful critical care management. Though multiple randomized trials in the recent years have not successfully identified any effective neuroprotective therapy in SAH, the overall SAH outcome has significantly improved over the past two decades.

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