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Acute Pancreatitisa 

Acute Pancreatitisa
Chapter:
Acute Pancreatitisa
Author(s):

Bret T. Petersen

and Randall K. Pearson

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199373338.003.0042
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date: 04 December 2020

Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by severe abdominal pain and locoregional and systemic inflammatory complications. More than 200,000 new cases of acute pancreatitis occur in the United States each year, and its incidence is on the rise. Twenty percent of acute pancreatitis is severe, and about 5% of all patients with pancreatitis die as a result of the disease. In 80% of cases, acute pancreatitis is mild and self-limited, with little or no long-term sequelae to the pancreatic parenchyma or systemic toxicity. In 20% of cases, severe acute pancreatitis develops, leading in the early phase to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, organ failure (hypotension, renal failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome), and pancreatic necrosis. The clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis ranges from mild, nonspecific epigastric pain to a catastrophic acute medical illness. The pain of acute pancreatitis generally is located in the epigastrium and radiates into the back in approximately 50% of patients. The onset of pain usually is swift, with pain reaching maximum intensity within an hour.

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