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Vascular Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tracta 

Vascular Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tracta
Chapter:
Vascular Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tracta
Author(s):

Stephen C. Hauser

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199373338.003.0015
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date: 20 February 2020

Mesenteric ischemia can occur from any of the myriad of conditions that decrease intestinal blood flow. These conditions are divided into secondary mesenteric ischemia due to extrinsic vascular compression or trauma and primary mesenteric ischemia resulting from arterial emboli, arterial or venous thrombi, low-flow states, or vasculitis. The esophagus receives its principal blood supply segmentally from small vessels from the aorta, right intercostal artery, bronchial arteries, inferior thyroid artery, left gastric artery, short gastric artery, and left phrenic artery. Vascular disease of the esophagus is extremely rare. The stomach, duodenum, and rectum have numerous arterial inputs with rich collateralization. Vascular disorders that affect the stomach, duodenum, or rectum are also extremely rare. The principal arterial supply to the gut distal to the esophagus is from the celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric arteries. Embolic disease most frequently affects the superior mesenteric artery because of its large diameter and narrow angle of takeoff from the abdominal aorta.

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