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Spinal Deformity and Scoliosis 

Spinal Deformity and Scoliosis
Spinal Deformity and Scoliosis

Daraspreet Singh Kainth

, Karanpal Singh Dhaliwal

, and David W. Polly

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date: 22 January 2021

Spinal deformity can be present in children, adolescents, and adults. Early-onset scoliosis, which affects children less than 10 years of age, can be the result of congenital abnormalities or neuromuscular disease or can be idiopathic. Adolescents most commonly develop scoliosis as the result of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Adult deformity can be the result of progression of conditions present in childhood or adolescence, or from degenerative changes. Many conditions can lead to spine deformity, including congenital causes, trauma, cancer, osteoporosis, postsurgical, and idiopathic causes. Though deformity treatment needs to be tailored to the individual, there are many guiding principles and concepts that apply when treating patients with scoliosis and spinal deformity. This chapter reviews important concepts such the deformity classification systems, deformity parameters, treatment options, and associated risks and benefits.

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