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Are Exposures Associated With Health Indicators? 

Are Exposures Associated With Health Indicators?
Are Exposures Associated With Health Indicators?

Katherine M. Keyes

and Sandro Galea

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date: 20 September 2020

How does an epidemiologist know when an exposure of interest is associated with a health indicator? This question is at the heart of step 4: estimate measures of association between exposures and health indicators of interest. This chapter guides the reader through measures of association for multiple types of study design. It covers the risk ratio, rate ratio, and odds ratio, as well as risk and rate difference. The chapter provides special attention to the odds ratio, including what an odds ratio is, when to use an odds ratio, and the connections between an odds ratio (odds conditional on health indicators or exposure absence or presence) and other measures of association. The chapter provides multiple examples of when to use each measure, their estimation, and the associations among measures. The chapter also provides a comprehensive guide to estimating and interpreting 95% confidence intervals for all measures of association.

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