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Watching a Sample, Counting Cases 

Watching a Sample, Counting Cases
Watching a Sample, Counting Cases

Katherine M. Keyes

and Sandro Galea

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date: 30 September 2020

This chapter reviews foundational epidemiologic measures of health indicator occurrence and frequency. Any epidemiologic study design needs to count cases of the health indicators of interest. Prevalence, risk (also termed incidence), and rate are three central measures of occurrence and frequency that form the foundation of all epidemiologic approaches to understanding the distribution of health indicators. The chapter provides a comprehensive overview into the estimation of these measures and the connections among these measures. The chapter also provides a comprehensive guide to estimating standard errors and confidence intervals for measures of prevalence, risk, and rate. This chapter guides the reader through estimating conditional risks as we progress toward estimating measures of association.

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