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Integrative Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Role of Energy Balance as Treatment 

Integrative Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Role of Energy Balance as Treatment
Chapter:
Integrative Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Role of Energy Balance as Treatment
Author(s):

Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199329724.003.0023
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date: 14 October 2019

Chapter 23 covers colorectal cancer, and discusses how many preclinical, epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that diet and other lifestyle factors have a significant influence on the risk of developing colorectal cancer, that obesity, consumption of red meat, a Western pattern diet, alcohol, and smoking increase one's risk of developing colorectal cancer, whereas physical activity, vitamin D, postmenopausal estrogen use, aspirin and NSAIDs decrease one's risk, how prospective observational studies have shown that increased exercise after diagnosis, avoidance of a Western pattern diet, lower glycemic load diet and increased vitamin D levels are associated with reduced risk of cancer recurrence and improved overall survival in early-stage colorectal cancer after standard therapy, that patients with class II and III obesity (BMI ? 35 kg/m2) have a modestly increased risk of recurrence. In contrast, change of weight after diagnosis is not associated with outcomes after diagnosis, and that the data supporting these observations will be reviewed, potential mechanisms of actions will be discussed, and next steps forward will be proposed.

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