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Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
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date: 06 August 2021

Incidence 396

Aetiology and prenatal origin 396

Presenting symptoms 397

Differential diagnosis 397

Investigations 398

Primary management at presentation (including clinical emergencies) 399

Treatment 400

Treatment-related complications 402

Management of relapse 403

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children is a paradigm for the development of paediatric haematology and oncology over the last 40 years. As it has evolved from being an incurable disease in the 1960s to an overall event-free survival at 5 years now approaching 80%, it has become one of the success stories of modern multi-agent chemotherapy. The history of treatment for childhood ALL highlights the importance of randomized clinical trials, since these formed the basis for the continuous improvement of ALL chemotherapy. In addition, substantial insight into the biology of childhood ALL has been gained that in the future will hopefully translate into improved and more specific treatments with fewer side effects. However, despite the excellent cure rates, ALL treatment still puts a significant burden onto affected children and their families....

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