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Management of pain 

Management of pain
Management of pain

Miriam Johnson

, Karen Hogg

, James Beattie

, and Max Watson

Page of

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date: 01 March 2021

End stage heart failure may not be thought of as a painful condition and therefore is an under-recognised symptom. The pain may be cardiac in origin or due to the co-morbidities that many patients suffer. Untreated pain will further affect mobility thus aggravating other symptoms of breathlessness and fatigue made worse by cardio-respiratory conditioning and loss of skeletal muscle. The common causes of pain in heart failure can be divided into cardio-vascular, treatment-aggravated and non-cardiovascular causes

This chapter summarises management strategies for each category.

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