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Cardiac catheterization 

Cardiac catheterization
Cardiac catheterization

Andrew R.J. Mitchell

, Nick E.J. West

, Paul Leeson

, and Adrian P. Banning

Page of

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date: 18 October 2019

Cardiac catheterization 48

Pressure waveforms 50

Aortic and cardiac waveforms 50

Equipment 52

Accessing the left heart 60

Left heart pressures and waveforms 62

Accessing the right heart 64

Right heart pressures and waveforms 66

Calculations 68

Left ventriculography 70

Aortography 78

Cardiac catheterization allows the invasive acquisition of haemodynamic data using direct and indirect pressure measurements, oxygen saturations and provides anatomical information using contrast angiography. Right heart catheterization used to be a routine part of an invasive cardiac study. The increased accessibility and accuracy of non-invasive imaging (in particular echocardiography and Doppler techniques) has reduced the need to perform right heart catheterization. Always review non-invasive imaging prior to performing an invasive study and confirm that the test remains indicated....

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