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The lipophilic opioids: fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, and remifentanil 

The lipophilic opioids: fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, and remifentanil
The lipophilic opioids: fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, and remifentanil

Anthony Hall

and Janet R. Hardy

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date: 24 July 2021

Chapter 11 discusses fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, and remifentanil which are synthetic opioid analgesics with high affinity for the mu opioid receptor. They have been widely adopted in anaesthetic practice for various surgical procedures (e.g. in cardiac surgery) and for long-term analgesia and sedation. Important pharmacokinetic differences between these analgesics have been described, and this chapter addresses how the pharmacokinetic profile of each analgesic is affected by many factors, including patient age, plasma protein content, acid–base balance status, cardiopulmonary bypass, changes in hepatic blood flow, and the co-administration of other drugs which compete for plasma protein carriers and metabolic pathways, although their profile is not significantly affected by renal insufficiency or compensated hepatic dysfunction, which has major clinical implications.

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