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date: 05 May 2021

Introduction: orthodontics 326

Orthodontic classifications 327

Removable appliances 328

Fixed appliances 332

Functional appliances 336

Extraoral traction ‘headgear’ 338

Care of appliances 340

Oral hygiene advice 342

Orthodontics is a specialist branch of dentistry concerned with the correction of abnormalities of tooth position, known as ‘malocclusion’. Treatment commonly involves straightening crooked teeth, closing gaps, and correction of protruding teeth. Orthodontics is most frequently undertaken in adolescent children (12–16 years old) but can be performed in any age group....

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