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Insemination, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection 

Insemination, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Insemination, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection

Herman J. Tournaye

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date: 26 May 2022

Anamnesis, physical examination, and additional tests may reveal a specific cause of reproductive failure in infertile men. Whenever this is found, a specific treatment or cure should be applied. When no such treatment is available, or when specific treatment has failed, techniques of assisted reproduction may be proposed to couples suffering from long-standing male infertility. The rationale behind these is to bring the spermatozoa closer to the oocyte in an attempt to enhance the fertilization process. In recent years the role of assisted reproduction has become more important, and it has often been stated that these techniques have made clinical work-up or specific treatment of the male partner pointless. However, this is far from true. Not only may correction of a specific dysfunction in the male avoid the use of assisted reproductive techniques, but careful work-up and treatment may also enhance the outcome of these treatments. Assisted reproductive techniques should not be viewed as a primary treatment option, but rather as a complementary treatment when other treatments have failed, or have been judged inadequate after a complete work-up.

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