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Franco Dondero

and Francesco Lombardo

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date: 26 May 2022

Azoospermia, the absence of sperm, is the most challenging of clinical conditions despite recent progress in diagnosis and treatment. The prevalence of azoospermia is less than 1% among all men, and approximately 10–15% among infertile men. Its incidence in the general male population is 2–3% (1). Testicular (secretory) azoospermia is untreatable in most cases, and even when a cure can be attempted, success is usually low. Obstructive azoospermia, in contrast, is characterized by normal spermatogenesis and is therefore potentially treatable. Accordingly, this condition has always been the focus of physicians’ interest and attention.

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